caricature artists in the arab countries

Ahmad Toughan
/احمد طوغان
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Ahmad Toughan was born in Mounia, a suburb of the Egyptian capital Cairo, on December 20, 1926, to a police officer and a teacher.

Born near the Giza Pyramids and the Sphinx, Toughan grew up in the shadow of these enormous historical wonders.

While young, he met Mahmoud El-Saadani, with whom he shared feelings of concern and sorrow, as well as hope for a promising future for Egypt and a better society.

Saadani later became a well-known political writer who wrote for the likes of "Akhbar El Yawm" and "Rose el-Youssef."

Together, they worked very successfully. They read and analyzed books together. Every week, they met in the Giza cafe where they discussed the weekly concerns of their readers.

This cafe attracted a large number of intellectuals, including Anwar Sadat, who later became president of Egypt in 1970.

Toughan began his professional career in 1946 as a journalist and caricaturist for many Egyptian newspapers and magazines.

At the age of 27 he co-founded "Joumhouria," one of Egypt's major daily newspapers.

In 1980, he established the weekly magazine "Caricature," alongside his fellow artist Mustapha Hussein.

While Toughan had not studied political science, he said that he was self-taught through his immersion in the vibrant popular movement in Egypt at the time.

During his professional career, Toughan published more than 20,000 caricatures in newspapers and magazines, and over 14 books since 1946.
His last book, which was published in 1998, included 220 of his most famous caricatures.
Ahmed Toughan was an unusual and rare talent, the likes of which we have not seen since.



في‭ ‬العشرين‭ ‬من‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬ديسمبر كانون‭ ‬الأول‭ ‬من‭ ‬العام‭ ‬1926‭ ‬ولد‭ ‬أحمد‭ ‬طوغان‭ ‬بالمنية‭ ‬إحدى‭ ‬ضواحي‭ ‬القاهرة‭ ‬في‭ ‬مصر،‭ ‬لأب‭ ‬ضابط‭ ‬في‭ ‬الشرطة‭ ‬ولأم‭ ‬مدرسة‭ ‬ثانوية‭.‬

كانت‭ ‬ولادته‭ ‬بالقرب‭ ‬من‭ ‬أهرامات‭ ‬الجيزة‭ ‬وتمثال‭ ‬أبي‭ ‬الهول،‭ ‬فنشأ‭ ‬وترعرع‭ ‬في‭ ‬ظل‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬العجائب‭ ‬التاريخية‭ ‬الهائلة‭ ‬لتطبع‭ ‬حياته‭ ‬بسماتها‭ ‬فتميّز‭ ‬خلالها‭ ‬بالقوة‭ ‬والعظمة‭ ‬والحكمة،‭ ‬وهو‭ ‬ما‭ ‬كان‭ ‬يراه‭ ‬متجسداً‭ ‬في‭ ‬جسد‭ ‬الأسد‭ ‬ورأس‭ ‬الفرعون‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬يمثلهما‭ ‬أبو‭ ‬الهول‭.‬
آمن‭ ‬طوغان‭ ‬بأن‭ ‬القوة‭ ‬والحكمة‭ ‬يجب‭ ‬أن‭ ‬يطبّقا‭ ‬على‭ ‬المستوى‭ ‬الفردي‭ ‬كما‭ ‬على‭ ‬مستوى‭ ‬الدولة‭ ‬القومية‭ ‬لا‭ ‬بل‭ ‬على‭ ‬المستوى‭ ‬العالمي‭.‬

التقى‭ ‬في‭ ‬حداثته‭ ‬مع‭ ‬محمود‭ ‬السعدني‭ ‬وكان‭ ‬همها‭ ‬مزيج‭ ‬من‭ ‬الحرقة‭ ‬والأمل‭ ‬بمستقبل‭ ‬واعد‭ ‬لمجتمع‭ ‬أفضل‭. ‬السعدني‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬أصبح‭ ‬فيما‭ ‬بعد‭ ‬كاتباً‭ ‬سياسياً‭ ‬معروفاً‭ ‬في‭ ‬صحف‭ ‬أسبوعية‭ ‬مهمة‭ ‬كأخبار‭ ‬اليوم‭ ‬وروز‭ ‬اليوسف‭.‬

كان‭ ‬نتاجهما‭ ‬معاً‭ ‬وفيراً‭ ‬إذ‭ ‬كانا‭ ‬يقرآن‭ ‬ويحللان‭ ‬كتاباً‭ ‬كل‭ ‬أسبوع‭. ‬و‭ ‬كان‭ ‬مقهى‭ ‬الجيزة‭ ‬مكاناً‭ ‬للقائهما‭ ‬ومناقشتهما‭ ‬هموم‭ ‬القراء‭ ‬الأسبوعية‭. ‬هذا‭ ‬المقهى‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬كان‭ ‬يجتذب‭ ‬عدداً‭ ‬كبيراً‭ ‬من‭ ‬المثقفين‭ ‬والمتعلمين‭ ‬والذين‭ ‬أصبح‭ ‬أحدهم‭ ‬محمد‭ ‬أنور‭ ‬السادات‭ ‬رئيساً‭ ‬لمصر‭ ‬في‭ ‬العام‭ .‬1970 ‬و‭ ‬كانت‭ ‬الهموم‭ ‬المحلية‭ ‬والعربية‭ ‬خبزهم‭ ‬اليومي‭ ‬يقتاتون‭ ‬به‭ ‬مع‭ ‬رشفة‭ ‬من‭ ‬كوب‭ ‬شاي‭. ‬

ابتدأ‭ ‬طوغان‭ ‬حياته‭ ‬المهنية‭ ‬عام‭ ‬1946‭ ‬كصحفي‭ ‬ورسام‭ ‬كاريكاتور‭ ‬في‭ ‬العديد‭ ‬من‭ ‬الصحف‭ ‬والمجلات‭ ‬المصرية،‭ ‬وبفترة‭ ‬وجيزة‭ ‬تبيّن‭ ‬للقرّاء‭ ‬كما‭ ‬للناشرين‭ ‬أن‭ ‬طوغان‭ ‬لا‭ ‬بدّ‭ ‬وأنه‭ ‬يقبض‭ ‬بيساره‭ ‬على‭ ‬عبقر‭ ‬الكاريكاتور‭ ‬ويخط‭ ‬بيمينه‭ ‬رسومه،‭ ‬إذ‭ ‬من‭ ‬قال‭ ‬أن‭ ‬للشعر‭ ‬فقط‭ ‬عبقره؟

فطارت‭ ‬شهرته‭ ‬خاصة‭ ‬خلال‭ ‬عمله‭ ‬في‭ ‬روز‭ ‬اليوسف‭.‬
في‭ ‬عمر‭ ‬السابعة‭ ‬والعشرين‭ ‬كان‭ ‬أحد‭ ‬مؤسسي‭ ‬‮«‬الجمهورية‮»‬‭ ‬إحدى‭ ‬أهم‭ ‬الصحف‭ ‬اليومية‭ ‬المصرية‭.‬
عام‭ ‬1980‭ ‬أنشأ‭ ‬مع‭ ‬زميله‭ ‬الفنان‭ ‬مصطفى‭ ‬حسين‭ ‬مجلة‭ ‬‮«‬الكاريكاتور‮»‬‭ ‬الأسبوعية‭.‬

يقول‭ ‬طوغان‭ ‬عن‭ ‬نفسه‭ ‬أنه‭ ‬لم‭ ‬يحصل‭ ‬شهادات‭ ‬في‭ ‬العلوم‭ ‬السياسية‭ ‬بل‭ ‬علّم‭ ‬نفسه‭ ‬بنفسه‭ ‬في‭ ‬مدرسة‭ ‬الحركة‭ ‬الشعبية‭ ‬النابضة‭ ‬بالنضال‭ ‬والحياة‭.‬
خلال‭ ‬مسيرته‭ ‬الاحترافية‭ ‬نشر‭ ‬طوغان‭ ‬أكثر‭ ‬من‭ ‬عشرين‭ ‬ألف‭ ‬رسم‭ ‬كاريكاتوري‭ ‬في‭ ‬الصحف‭ ‬والمجلات‭ ‬وأربعة‭ ‬عشر‭ ‬كتاباً‭ ‬منذ‭ ‬العام‭ ‬1946‭ ‬كانت‭ ‬بإجمالها‭ ‬تنطق‭ ‬بلسان‭ ‬الناس‭.‬

كما‭ ‬ضمن‭ ‬كتاب‭ ‬الأخير‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬صدر‭ ‬في‭ ‬العام‭ ‬1998‭ ‬220‭ ‬رسماً‭ ‬كاريكاتورياً‭ ‬هي‭ ‬الأشهر‭ ‬لديه‭. ‬

أحمد‭ ‬طوغان‭ ‬كان‭ ‬ولم‭ ‬يكن‭ ‬مثله‭ ‬أحد‭ ‬فلا‭ ‬شابه‭ ‬أحداً‭ ‬من‭ ‬السلف،‭ ‬لا،‭ ‬ولا‭ ‬أحد‭ ‬من‭ ‬الخلف‭ ‬شابهه‭.‬